Server side authentication mechanisms for electronic devices

Hi everyone.
I’m truly sorry if my question sounds stupid, i’m truly new in this field and I still cannot find my way for reliable resources.
Anyway, I’m trying to setup a full stack system that has 3 high-level components:
1) Server: collects data and send to the frontend.
2) Frontend application: a web dashboard that displays data
3) Electronic device which I’ll call Station for simplification. Its purpose is to send data retrieve by some sensors to the server side.

My question is about security linked to the electronic device. How can I authenticate the stations so the server knows that the stations belong to the system I’ve deployed and not some users that’s trying to send some malicious data to the server?

I’ve been thinking some univocal IDs hard coded in the firmware, or something like that… What’s the standard for these type of things?

submitted by /u/sgrum0
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Original article: Server side authentication mechanisms for electronic devices
Author: /u/sgrum0